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2013 Tax Changes for Individuals

From personal deductions to tax credits and educational expenses, many of the tax changes for 2013 tax changes for individuals were related to the signing of the American Taxpayer Relief Act (ATRA), which modified, made permanent, or extended a number of tax provisions that expired in 2010 and 2011. With that in mind, here’s what individuals and families need to know about tax changes that took effect in 2013.

What Are The 2013 Tax Changes for Individuals?

Personal Exemption And Dependent Exemption
The personal and dependent exemption for tax year 2013 is increased to $3,900. But the amount is reduced if your adjusted gross income is more than:

  1. $150,000 if married filing separately,
  2. $250,000 if single,
  3. $275,000 if head of household, or
  4. $300,000 if any other filing status

Standard Deduction 
In 2013 the standard deduction for married couples filing a joint return is $12,200. For singles and married individuals filing separately, it’s $6,100, and for head of household filing status the deduction is $8,950.

The additional standard deduction for blind people and senior citizens increases in 2013 to $1,200 for married individuals and $1,500 for singles and heads of household.

Limit On Itemized Deductions You may not be able to deduct all of your itemized deductions if your adjusted gross income is more than:

  1. $150,000 if married filing separately,
  2. $250,000 if single,
  3. $275,000 if head of household, or
  4. $300,000 if any other filing status

Medical and dental expenses You can deduct only the part of your medical and dental expenses that is more than 10% of your adjusted gross income (7.5% if either you or your spouse is age 65 or older). This is decreased from the previous threshold of 7.5% in prior years.

Change In Income Tax Rates 
Beginning in tax year 2013, there is a new highest tax rate of 39.6 percent which has been added for individuals whose income exceeds $400,000 ($450,000 for married taxpayers filing a joint return). The other marginal rates–10, 15, 25, 28, 33 and 35 percent–remain the same as in prior years.

Due to inflation, tax-bracket thresholds increased for every filing status. For example, the taxable-income threshold separating the 15-percent bracket from the 25-percent bracket is $72,500 for a married couple filing a joint return.

Tax Rate On Net Capital Gain And Qualified Dividends The maximum tax rate of 15% on net capital gain and qualified dividends has increased to 20% for some taxpayers.

In 2013 tax rates on capital gains and dividends for taxpayers whose income is at or below $400,000 ($450,000 married filing jointly) remains at 2012 rates. For taxpayers in the lower tax brackets (10% and 15%), the rate remains at 0%, (the same as in 2012).

For taxpayers in the middle tax brackets however, the rate increases to 15%.

For taxpayers whose income is at or above $400,000 ($450,000 married filing jointly), the rate for both capital gains and dividends is capped at 20% (up from 15% in 2012).

Estate and Gift Taxes 
The recent overhaul of estate and gift taxes means that there is an exemption of $5.25 million per individual for estate, gift and generation-skipping taxes, with a top rate of 40%. The annual exclusion for gifts is $14,000.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) 
AMT exemption amounts were made permanent and indexed for inflation retroactive to 2012. In addition, non-refundable personal credits can now be used against the AMT. For 2013 exemption amounts are $51,900 for single and head of household filers, $80,800 for married people filing jointly and for qualifying widows or widowers, and $40,400 for married people filing separately.

Net Investment Income Tax Beginning in 2013, you may be subject to Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT). The NIIT is 3.8% of the smaller of (a) your net investment income or (b) the excess of your modified adjusted gross income over:

  1. $125,000 if married filing separately,
  2. $250,000 if married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er), or
  3. $200,000 if any other filing status.

Marriage Penalty Relief 
For 2013, the basic standard deduction for a married couple filing jointly is $12,200.

Pease and PEP (Personal Exemption Phaseout)
Pease (limitations on itemized deductions) and PEP (personal exemption phase-out) limitations were made permanent by ATRA and affect taxpayers with income at or below $250,000 (single filers) and $300,000 for married filing jointly starting with tax year 2013.

Additional Medicare Tax Beginning in 2013, a 0.9% Additional Medicare Tax applies to Medicare wages, railroad retirement (RRTA) compensation, and self-employment income that are more than:

  1. $125,000 if married filing separately,
  2. $250,000 if married filing jointly, or
  3. $200,000 for any other filing status.

Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) 
Flexible Spending Accounts are limited to $2,500 per year starting in 2013 (indexed to inflation) and apply only to salary reduction contributions under a health FSA. The term “taxable year” as it applies to FSAs refers to the plan year of the cafeteria plan, which is typically the period during which salary reduction elections are made.

Specifically, in the case of a plan providing a grace period (which may be up to two months and 15 days), unused salary reduction contributions to the health FSA for plan years beginning in 2012 or later that are carried over into the grace period for that plan year will not count against the $2,500 limit for the subsequent plan year.

Further, the IRS is providing relief for certain salary reduction contributions exceeding the $2,500 limit that are due to a reasonable mistake and not willful neglect and that are corrected by the employer.

Same-Sex Marriages If you have a same-sex spouse whom you legally married in a state (or foreign country) that recognizes same-sex marriage, you and your spouse generally must use the married filing jointly or married filing separately filing status on your 2013 return, even if you and your spouse now live in a state (or foreign country) that does not recognize same-sex marriage.

If you meet certain requirements, you may be able to file amended returns to change your filing status for some earlier years. For details on filing amended returns, please Contact Us at Tax Samaritan.

Standard mileage rates The 2013 rate for business use of your car is increased to 56 cents a mile.

2013 Tax Changes for Individuals – Tax Credits

Adoption Credit
In 2013 a nonrefundable (i.e. only those with a lax liability will benefit) credit of up to $12,970 is available for qualified adoption expenses for each eligible child.

Child and Dependent Care Credit 
The child and dependent care tax credit was permanently extended for taxable years starting in 2013. If you pay someone to take care of your dependent (defined as being under the age of 13 at the end of the tax year or incapable of self-care) in order to work or look for work, you may qualify for a credit of up to $1,050 or 35 percent of $3,000 of eligible expenses.

For two or more qualifying dependents, you can claim up to 35 percent of $6,000 (or $2,100) of eligible expenses. For higher income earners the credit percentage is reduced, but not below 20 percent, regardless of the amount of adjusted gross income.

Child Tax Credit 
For tax year 2013, the child tax credit is $1,000. A portion of the credit may be refundable, which means that you can claim the amount you are owed, even if you have no tax liability for the year. The credit is phased out for those with higher incomes.

Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) 
For tax year 2013, the maximum earned income tax credit (EIC) for low and moderate income workers and working families rises to $6,044, up from $5,891 in 2012. The maximum income limit for the EITC rises to $51, 567 (up from $50,270 in 2012) for married filing jointly. The credit varies by family size, filing status and other factors, with the maximum credit going to joint filers with three or more qualifying children.

Individuals – Education Expenses

Coverdell Education Savings Account 
You can contribute up to $2,000 a year to Coverdell savings accounts in 2013. These accounts can be used to offset the cost of elementary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary education.

American Opportunity Tax Credit 
For 2013, the maximum Hope Scholarship Credit that can be used to offset certain higher education expenses is $2,500 per student, although it is phased out beginning at $160,000 adjusted gross income for joint filers and $80,000 for other filers.

Employer Provided Educational Assistance 
In 2013, as an employee, you can exclude up to $5,250 of qualifying post-secondary and graduate education expenses that are reimbursed by your employer.

Lifetime Learning Credit 
A credit of up to $2,000 is available for an unlimited number of years for certain costs of post-secondary or graduate courses or courses to acquire or improve your job skills. For 2013, the modified adjusted gross income threshold at which the lifetime learning credit begins to phase out is $104,000 for joint filers and $52,000 for singles and heads of household.

Student Loan Interest 
In 2013 you can deduct up to $2,500 in student-loan interest as long as your modified adjusted gross income is less than $60,000 (single) or $125,000 (married filing jointly). The deduction is phased out at higher income levels. In addition, the deduction is claimed as an adjustment to income so you do not need to itemize your deductions.

Individuals – Retirement

Contribution Limits
For 2013, the elective deferral (contribution) limit for employees who participate in 401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans, and the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan is $17,500. For persons age 50 or older in 2013, the limit is $23,000 ($5,500 catch-up contribution). Contribution limits for SIMPLE plans remain at $12,000 for persons under age 50 and $14,500 for persons age 50 or older in 2013. The maximum compensation used to determine contributions increases to $255,000.

Saver’s Credit 
In 2013, the AGI limit for the saver’s credit (also known as the retirement savings contributions credit) for low-and moderate-income workers is $59,000 for married couples filing jointly, $44,250 for heads of household, and $29,500 for married individuals filing separately and for singles.
Please contact us if you need help understanding which deductions and tax credits you are entitled to. We are always available to assist you.

Tax Samaritan is a team of Enrolled Agents with over 25 years of experience focusing on the taxation of US taxpayers living abroad and in the United States. Our services include the preparation of returns that are inclusive of all deductions and credits that you are legally qualified to claim. We maintain this tax blog where all articles are written by Enrolled Agents. Our main objective is to educate Americans abroad on their tax responsibilities, so that they can look for planning alternatives on time. They are also designed to help taxpayers looking to self prepare, providing specific tips and pitfalls to avoid. If you found this article helpful, you’ll likely benefit from our future ones as well – so we encourage you to avoid pitfalls and join our mailing list:

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Randall Brody is an enrolled agent, licensed by the US Department of the Treasury to represent taxpayers before the IRS for audits, collections and appeals. To attain the enrolled agent designation, candidates must demonstrate expertise in taxation, fulfill continuing education credits and adhere to a stringent code of ethics.

Every effort has been taken to provide the most accurate and honest analysis of the tax information provided in this blog. Please use your discretion before making any decisions based on the information provided. This blog is not intended to be a substitute for seeking professional tax advice based on your individual needs.



Updated: December 6, 2013

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